Your ship is leaky, you cannot keep her free by the pumps, what will you do ?
You are ordered to a ship, she is lying in dock;
prepare to take her out of dock.
I would take on board what kentledge was necessary, stream anchor
and cable, kedge anchor, hawser and towline, with some spare
ropes for guys, to keep her fair for the dock gates; buoy and buoy ropes
for stream and kedge.
When your ship is out of dock, what is first to be done ?
I would secure her, then take on board the remainder of the
kentledge, and level the hold, by laying the kentledge from the fore
part of the fore hatchway to the after-part of the after hatchway.
How would you moor your ship at Gravesend ?
I would come-to with my small bower, veer the service into the
hawse, and then hang my best bower anchor to the long boat, and with
the tide drop her a-stern: when the cable is taut, let go the anchor, first
letting go the shank rope, to keep the cable more taut.
How would you hang the anchor to the long boat ?
Take the buoy-rope over the roller (which is in the middle of the
stern of the long boat), bring the bight round the main thwart, cockbill
the anchor, hook the cat to the anchor, and lower away, until the flukes
of the anchor are clear of the boat's bottom, then make fast the buoy-rope,
have a shank-rope through the ring (which is at the boats stern post),
pass it round the shank of the anchor; make it fast to the after
thwart, lower away and unhook the cat, then veer away the cable; be
careful to heave the buoy overboard and spare buoy-rope before you
let go the anchor.
How do you unmoor a ship as it is done in the navy?
I would send for the master to see the hawse is clear, turn all
hands up to unmoor ship, lay the capstan bars for shipping, call the
mate to see the messenger passed for the best bower, rig the davit out,
because I will take it up the first quarter flood, get the cat and
fish to pass for the best bower, stretch along the fish-tackle:
quarter-masters down in the tier, and stand by to veer away the small
bower cable; ship the capstan bars, pin and swift them; clap on the
stoppers before the bitts, and bring to the messenger. At the same
time unbit the best bower, rowse aft the slack cable; heave taut,
take off the stoppers, hold on the messenger, and heave away; veer
away the small bower cable; clap on the nippers. Thick and dry for
weighing, heave cheerly; the anchor's away, keep fast the small bower
cable; quarter-master take hold of the helm; look out for the anchor;
the anchor is in sight; heave and paul the capstan; hook the cat; haul
taut, and take a turn; surge the messenger round the capstan; take
off the nippers; out cable; cable enough; haul cat; belay the catfall;
pass the stopper; hook the fish: try fish by hand, haul with the fish:
belay the fish-tackle fall; pass the shank-painter; bowse to the stock with
the tackle; belay the shank-painter; make fast the stopper and stock
lashing; come up cat and fish; unhook both; haul buoy and buoy rope
in; then shift the messenger for the small bower and bring to, clap on
the stoppers before the bitts, and unbit the cable; rowse aft the
slack cable; man the capstan; hold on the messenger; forecastle-men
rig out the davit for the small bower: when the anchor is a stay peek,
send the top men to loose the sails; man the yards; stretch along the
topsail sheets; let fall the topsails; overhaul reef tackles,
bunt-lines and clue-lines; foot the sails out of the top; haul home
the topsail-sheets; stretch along the topsail-halyards and man them;
quarter-master and boatswain's mates attend the braces; hoist away the
topsails; topsails atrip: belay the halyards; trim the sails; heave up
the anchor; stow it as before, and haul the buoy and buoy rope in.
How would you unmoor, with the wind S. E. or S. ?
Veer on the best bower cable, and take the small bower-anchor
up first; and proceed as before, then heave in to the short service on
the best bower, &c. If the anchor has great hold and afraid of stranding
the messenger, clear away the main capstan, and lash a block, or
purchase blocks, on the cable, and one to the main-mast, or one to the
two ports abreast of the main-mast; reeve a hawser through them, and
heave on both capstans together.
Suppose you are close upon a wind, in moderate weather, with all your
sails set, how will you tack the ship ?
I would stretch along the lee bow-lines and weather-braces, the
weather-sheets and lee-tacks; then put the helm a-lee, let go the fore
sheet, lee fore-top sail brace, and fore-top bow-line; jib and stay-sail
sheets. When the fore-top sail touches, brace to and help her; when
aback, brace up and help her; when the wind is out of the after sails,
raise tacks and sheets; shift the stay-sail tacks, and haul over the stay-sail
sheets; when the wind is rather 1/2 a point on the bow, if sure of
coming about, haul the main sail. NB One watch of the top men
on the quarter-deck and fore-castle, to set up the weather-breast back
stays. If she has stern way, shift the helm and top the sprit-sail yard,
haul on board the main tack and aft the main sheet. Brace up the
main yard, when the after sails are full; haul off all; and haul on
board the fore tack; keep in the weather braces forward, and let her
come to, then brace up; haul aft the fore-sheet, jib and stay-sail sheets
(set up the back-stays when the ship is head to wind), and haul the
bow-lines, then haul taut the weather-braces, lee-tacks, and weather-
sheets; have the braces let go at once; when the word is given to haul
mainsail, (all the hands on the braces should keep hauling taut in for
the run) the yards will swing of themselves.
How would you tack a ship under her three top-sails ?
I would put the helm a-lee, ease off the fore-top sail brace, keep
fast the fore top bowline; when the top-sail touches, brace to and
help her; when the wind is a-head, haul the main top-sail and shift the
helm: then brace up the main yard, and haul the main-top bowline:
when the after sails are full, let go and haul; keep in the weather-braces
forward, and when she comes to brace sharp up, haul the main
and fore-top bowlines, haul taut the weather braces, and top the sprit-sail yard.
How do you veer, or wear a ship, with all her sails set ?
I would haul the mizen up, and the mizen stay-sail down, or brail
it up, hard a weather the helm, shiver the mizen top-sail, let go the
main and main-top bowlines, ease off the main sheet, the lee main brace,
and round in the weather brace. When the wind is abaft the beam,
raise the main tack; when the wind is aft, square the head yards, and
get the other tacks on board; haul aft the sheets; shift the jib and stay-sail
sheets over the stays, and as she comes too, haul the mizen out; hoist
the mizen stay-sail, and haul aft the sheet; brace the head yards up,
haul the bowlines, and trim all sharp. If a fresh wind, and should be
proper to shorten sail, in top gallant sails, down jib and stay-sails, take
one or two reefs in the top-sails.
It blows hard, how would you proceed to close reef the top-sails?
I would let run the halyards, and haul the yards close down by
the clew-lines and down-haul tackles; if the wind is large, man the
clew-lines and bunt-lines, let go the sheets, and clew them close up;
haul in the weather-brace; and spill the sail as much as possible; then
haul out the reef tackles, send men up and haul out the weather earing
first, then the lee one and reef away, hauling the other reefs up before
the yard: if the ship is upon a wind when the top-sail yard is down,
let go the bowline. It is mostly the way to man the clew-lines and
the bunt-lines, ease off the lee-sheet and clew it up; hauling in the
weather brace at the same time; when the sail is spilled, haul out the
reef-tackles, and reef as before. But to keep the sail from splitting or
shaking (especially if it be wet) it is the best way to man the clue-lines,
bunt-lines, and weather brace, let go the lee brace, ease off the weather
sheet, hauling up the clue-line, and in with the weather-brace at the
same time; when in enough, ease off the lee-sheet, clew up, &c.
NB To set a top-sail on a wind when it blows strong, always haul the lee-sheet
home first, then the weather one, &c. as before.
It blows harder, you must take in your top-sails ?
I would take in the fore and mizen top-sails first, because it will
ease the ship forward (for when it blows hard we generally have a-head
sea, and she keeps to the better) let go the fore-top bowline, lower away
the halyards, man the clue-lines and bunt-lines, clue close up, and haul
out the reef-tackles, haul in the weather-brace, steady the lee-brace,
haul taut the top-sail halyards; send the people up to hand the sail, and
when up, before they go on the yard, I'll clap the rolling tackle on to steady
it, and a piece of canvass abreast of the lee top-mast shrouds after the sail
is handed (all the top-sails should be taken in the same way); after that,
if squally, take in the main-top sail, and then the ship is under her courses.
How would you veer a ship under her courses ?
I would haul the mizen and main-sail up and down mizen
stay-sail, square the after-yards, hard a weather the helm, man the
weather fore-brace, and ease off the lee-brace and fore bowline; ease
off the fore-tack, and haul on board the other: keep her large
if room, until I get the tack on board and belay it: then luff up to the
wind, haul aft the fore-sheet and brace up the fore-yard, set the
after-sails, aboard main-tack: aft the main sheet, brace all up, and haul the
bowlines; when my sails are trimmed, shift the rolling tackles on the
Suppose you are lying-to in a hard gale of wind, under a reefed main-sail,
you want the ship's head the other tack; how will you veer in a great sea ?
I will watch her falling off, and put the helm a-weather, when
she does, ease off the main sheet; if that will not do, I'll man the fore-shrouds,
and get tarpaulins and hammocks or spare canvass up, and
spread it. If that will not do, I will haul aft the main sheet, and put
the helm a-lee, then send hands out to the sprit-sail yard with hammocks
and gaskets to stop the sprit-sail (called balancing) within
the lee clew-line block; and loose the lee yard-arm, then haul aft the sheet
clap the helm hard a-weather, ease off the main sheet, round in the
weather-brace, gather aft the other sheet, haul the main tack on board;
when she is before the wind, square the sprit-sail yard, clue the sail up
and furl it; ease the helm down a-lee, brace the yards up, haul the
main sheet aft, bowse the bowline up, lash the helm three parts a-lee
and she will lay to as before.
Suppose she will not veer after all you have done ?
I will loose the goose-wings of the fore-sail; if that will not do,
set the fore-sail and veer her under her courses, or haul the main-sail up;
if by hauling the main-sail up and furling it she does not veer, lower
down the mizen yard; if that will not do, lower down the cross-jack
yard and mizen top-mast; if that will not do, cut away the mizen-mast.
How do you cast a ship, when intending to get under weigh ?
If I am to cast her to starboard, I would haul in my larboard braces
forward, and let my after yards lay square; I may hoist the fore topmast
stay-sail, and keep the sheet to windward to help her. If I am to cast her
to port, I would haul in the contrary braces, when cast, fill the head
sails and brace up as circumstances require. NB, If a ship is windrode,
as soon as the anchor is right up and down, put the helm the way
you would have her cast, setting in the same braces abaft, and the
contrary forward: but if she is tide-rode, the helm must be put the
contrary way to which you would have her cast, and set in the braces
forward; which ever way the helm is, the braces abaft must be the
It blows hard, and you split your top-sail ?
I would let go the bowline, haul in the weather-brace, and lower
away the halyards, clew up the lee-sheet, haul up the bunt-lines, start
the weather-sheet, belay the clue-lines and bunt-lines, unbend the sail,
bend another; then either furl or set it, as circumstances require.
You are lying-to in a hard gale of wind, and split your main-sail ?
I will haul it up carefully, unbend the sail, and bend another, get
on board the main-tack, and haul aft the sheet; when the sail is set
get a tackle on the weather-leech to secure the tack, and a preventer
sheet: but in small ships they get the lee-tack aft for a preventer sheet.
Suppose you are on a wind, and let the ship come up in the wind,
and are all aback, what will you do ?
I will box her off; and suppose she will not box off, I will haul the
mizen up, let go the main and main-top bowlines, the lee main and
main-top-sail braces, and lay all square abaft, put the helm to leeward, if she
has stern-way, when the wind is abaft the beam shift the helm; and, as
she gets head-way, haul in a little of the after-braces, haul the mizen
out brace up sharp abaft and haul the bowlines; and then I am on the same
tack as before.
Suppose you are on a wind, close upon the land, and standing on must run
on shore, and you can clear the land on the other tack; but it blows hard
and a head swell, that she will not stay: and should you veer you would be
on shore, how would you get upon the other tack ?
I would club-haul her, this is done by putting the helm a-lee, and
letting go the lee-anchor, and bringing her head up to wind; then cut
the cable and haul about the after-sails; and when they arc full, brace
about the head-sails, haul on board the fore-tack, and brace up the
If by accident your ship is brought by the lee, what would you do?
When a ship is brought by the lee, it is commonly occasioned by a
large sea, and by the neglect of the helmsman. When the wind is two or
three points on the quarter, the ship taking a lurch brings the wind on
the other side, and lays the sails all dead to the mast; as the yards are
braced up, she then having little way, and the helm being of little service,
I would therefore brace about the head-sails the other way, and keep the
main-top-sail shivering; when she gathers way, and brings the wind aft
again, raise the fore-tack and square the head-sails; trim the sails as they
were before, and bring her to her course again. NB It is dangerous to
bring a ship by the lee in a gale of wind, for she is lying entirely against
the sea, her sails can be of little service till they are braced about.
Coming into soundings from a long voyage, I would have you prepare
for going into port and anchoring.
I'll order the cables to be bent; thus get their ends up, reeve, hawse
and ring ropes to haul them out, the forecastle men to clinch them, and
quartermaster to clap the bends on, reeve the runners end tackles, unstow
the anchors, bend the buoys and buoy-ropes, single the stoppers and
shank-painters, bit the bower-cables with a long range, have the dog-stoppers
to pass, see the tiers clear, have hand-leads and lines in the
chains, send down the top-ropes, reeve the top-tackle falls, unsling the
lower yards, when the cables are bent, &c. clap the hawse bucklers on.
Suppose you are on a lee shore, and had neither room to veer or stay,
nor any anchoring ground, how would you put the ship's head round the
other way ?
I would put my helm hard a-lee; when she comes head to wind,
raise the fore and main tacks directly, make a run with my weather braces
and lay all aback at once, then haul forward my lee-tacks and bow-lines
as far as I can, that the ship may fall round on her heel, and when the
main-sail begins to shiver; I would haul it up, fill my head sails, and
shift the helm hard a-weather; when the wind comes on the other
quarter, haul on board the main-tack, and bring her close to the wind.
Suppose it blows hard, you cannot carry your courses, night coming on,
and it is likely to blow harder, what will you do ?
I will haul the fore-sail up and furl it, balance the mizen, haul it
out to keep her to, then haul up the weather main clue-garnet and bunt-line
then the lee clue-garnet bunt-lines and leech-lines, square the
yards, and get strops round the mast above the booms to hook the yard
tackles to for rolling tackles, then reef the sail; when reefed, haul on
board the tack, get aft the sheet handsomely, tend the braces, bowse up
the bow-line, and haul up the mizen.
You are in a gale of wind, and split your fore-course, what will you do ?
I'll man the weather fore clue-garnet, bunt-lines and leech-lines,
ease off the fore-tack, and when clued up, man the lee clue-garnet and haul
it close up; let go the lee-brace; when I let go the sheet and square the
yard, haul taut the lifts and braces, send hands to unbend the sail; when
another is bent, and I want to set it, I will haul on board the fore-tack
and haul aft the fore-sheet, brace the yard up and haul the bow-line.
It blows hard, and you want to reef your courses, how would you proceed ?
I will let go the top-sail sheets and lifts, man the down-haul
tackles, lower away the jeers, let go the bow-lines and clue the sails up,
round in the weather-braces, haul taut the lifts, braces, and rolling
tackles; then send hands up to reef the sails; when I want to set them,
I will proceed with the sails as before.
You are standing on a wind with all your sails set; your enemy is in sight,
standing towards you, how do you clear your ship for action ?
I will call all hands to quarters, up hammocks, the quartermasters
to stow them in the netting, and on the gang-way; get the topmen's
hammocks up in the top; down all chests in the hold; quartermasters
stow them; take in all the small sails; sling the lower yard with top-chains,
get the puddings and dolphins up, then sling the top-sail yards
half mast or close up; stopper the top-sail sheets, stoppers on the jeers,
or else rack them; gunners get the match-tubs between every two guns,
matches, powder-horns, crows, and handspikes, sufficient for every gun;
all hands to quarters, keep silence and mind the word of command, fire
not a gun until the word of command is given; mind you do not fire a
shot in vain. Now I have all the three masts in one, Fire!
Suppose you are in chase of an enemy's ship of war, upon a wind, with all
your sails set; she is right a-head, on which side will you engage her ?
I will engage her to leeward, by reason she cannot put away before
the wind, and if there is any thing of a sea, she may not be able to fight
her lower tier of guns. If light breezes and hot weather it would be better
to engage to windward, to let them receive the smoke and heat of the
You are chasing from the wind, and carry away your main-top-mast,
how will you proceed ?
I would haul up the main-sail, and send hands up into the top with a
rope or hawser, to clap on that part of the mast that hangs down, then cut
the lanyards of the main top-mast shrouds, and lower away, cast off the
hawser, reeve it to send the stump down, clear away the rigging,
unsling the main-yard, get the fore-tackle on it and bowse forward the
yard, then lower the stump upon deck, and get the spare top-mast ready
for the cross-trees; clap the hawser on, and sway it up high enough for the rigging.
You are lying to in a hard gale of wind under your main course, you carry
away your main-mast, how will you proceed to clear the wreck?
I will clap my helm a-weather, brace my fore and fore-top sail yards
full, then call all hands to get pole-axes, &c. to clear away the rigging.
Why will you put the ship before the wind ?
Because the mast will go a-stern clear of the rudder, and prevent
its damaging the ship.
You are going large and see a ship in the wind's eye, how will you proceed
to chase her ?
I will turn all hands up, get my tacks on board, brace up my
yards and haul aft the sheets; haul the bow-lines, set the jib and stay-sails,
keep her full, and by making short boards and turn directly to
windward, which will prevent her putting away large.
Suppose you were to carry away your bowsprit, what would you do ?
I would immediately veer ship, and keep her before the wind; and
then, for the security of the fore-mast, I would carry forward the fore-runners
and tackles, and bowse them well taut, till I can get a hawser or
sufficient rope, and clinch it round the mast-head, and secure it to the
bits of the forecastle or the cat-heads; then take the best spar I have
and make a jury bowsprit of it.
Having a fair wind, how will you set your fore-top-mast studding sail on
the larboard side ?
First haul taut the truss tackles, and bowse the fore-yard close to;
then haul taut the larboard fore-lift, and starboard fore-top sail clue-line;
on board his majesty's ships the top burtons are on the top-sail
yards to keep them square when studding-sails are set (the top-sails, lifts
and clue-lines not thought of): the fore-top men down on the fore-yard,
and rig out the larboard studding-sail boom, first sending down the studding-sail-tack
and outer halyards; up to the fore-topsail larboard yard-arm
and reeve the halyards, send them down and bend them; the tack being
bent and all ready, man the halyards and hoist away, haul out the tack,
if the wind is on the beam or quartering, set it abaft the top-sail;
if right aft, before the top-sail (which is done by a man standing on the
fore yard-arm, with the leach of the studding-sail in his hands).
How do you splice your cables ?
I will put the whole strands of the best or small bower cables
twice each way, and point each strand with a tail of three fathoms each;
then seize them with quarter and end seizing to make them lie snug,
which is the readiest way for clearing the hawse, they being soon
spliced and unspliced when pointed.
How would you mark the lead-line ?
Black leather at 2 and 3 fathoms, white at 5, red at 7, black at 10, white at
13 (some seaman use black at 10 and 13), white at 15 as 5, red at 17 as 7, two
knots at 20 fathoms, and so on, an additional knot at every 10 fathoms, with a
single knot between each 10 fathoms to mark the line at every 5 fathoms.
You are sent down in the dark for a top-sail, how do you know a main-sail from
a fore-sail, or a main-top-sail from a fore-top-sail ?
If it has three bow-line cringles it is a main-sail; if it has but two,
it is a fore-sail: if it is marled abaft the foot rope, it is a main-sail; if
before, it is a fore-sail: if a main-top-sail, it has four bow-line cringles,
if a fore top-sail but three: all top-sails are marled to the rope, because
the foot rope is served.
The sheers are along side, how do you get them in ?
Par-buckle them in with their heads aft on the poop, and get the
fore and main runners on them for guys; lash on two four-fold blocks,
reeve the masting-falls, get girt-lines on the head of the sheers to steady
the mast-head, put heel-lashings on the sheers, with good oak planks
under them, to transport them forward on; lash one of the four-fold
blocks forward to the stem, and bring the fall to the capstan; heave the
sheers high enough: when done, I'll take forward two runners and
tackles to assist the sheers, take the mizen-mast first in, then raise the
sheers erect, take in the main-mast, bowse the heels of the sheers forward,
and keep them upright to take in the foremast.
How do you rig a lower mast ?
I will lash on the girt-line-blocks, put on the bolsters, parcel and
tar them, put over the runner and tackle-pendants, then the foremost of
the starboard-shrouds, then the larboard, and so on; then the stay and
spring stay, seize in the dead eyes for the shrouds, and the harts for the
stay, reeve the lanyards, set up the rigging, get the top over head, and
bolt it, rattle down the shrouds, and seize on the cat-harpin legs, hook
the futtock shrouds and hitch them, seize down the ends, lash the hanging
jeer blocks under the top, with the strops under the stays, lead up
and lash to the mast-head, get the cap into the top for the head of the
top-mast, and lash the blocks on for the main lifts.
How do you get a top and cap over ?
Make fast a girt-line-block, on each side of the mast-head, reeve the
girt-lines, and pass them under the top, and make them fast to the after part
of the top, stop them to the bolt holes in the middle and fore-part of
the top, then sway away; when high enough, cut the upper stops, having
a guy on the after of the top brim, and the top will fall over the masthead,
then lower away, and put it in its birth, haul upon the guy and bolt
it, lay the cap steady over the trussel-trees for the top-mast head, to receive
it; when the top-mast-head is through it, lash the cap to the top-mast
till high enough, then place the cap on the mast-head, and drive it down.
How do you rig a main-top-mast ?
I will tar the mast-head, get the cross-trees over, fix the bolters
and parcel them, put over burton-pendants, then the shrouds, and backstays,
proper and spring-stay, and cap, sway up the mast and fid it, seize
in the dead eyes, stay the mast, set up the shrouds, rattle them down,
lash the bullock-blocks to the mast-head.
How do you rig a top-gallant-mast ?
I will send down the top-rope, reeve it through the sheave-hole,
and make it fast round the hounds of the mast, and standing part of the
rope, leaving enough end to make fast to the cap for doubling, put on a
seizing about half way up, which done, sway away; when the head is
through the cap, make fast the spare end or standing part of the top-rope
to the cap, cut the seizing, clap on the grommet, then the shrouds,
back-stays and stay, sway up the mast, fid it, and set the rigging up.
How do you rig a bow-sprit ?
I will lash the collar for forestay, the bob-stays and bowsprit
shrouds, then the collar for the spring-stays, then the block for the top-mast
stay, fix the man-rope, gammon the bowsprit. and set bob-stays
and shrouds up.
How do you rig a jib-boom ?
I will put over the traveller, horses, and guys, the top-gallant stay-block,
and lash on the blocks for the top-gallant bowline; and jib
down-haul block to the traveller.
How do you rig a lower yard ?
I will get the yard athwart the gunwale, lash the jeers, clue garnets
bunt-lines, leach-lines, and slab-line blocks, then put over the
yard-arms the horses, brace-pendants, the yard tackle pendants, then
the top-sail sheet and lift blocks, reeve the jeers, braces, lifts, and yard
tackle falls, truss parels, sway the yard up, haul all taut, and belay.
How do you rig a fore-top-sail yard ?
I will reeve a hawser for the top-rope, through the bullock-block,
and send it down, and having put over the horses, make the top-rope
fast to the middle of the yard, stopping it to the yard-arm, sway it
above the top, put over the brace-pendants and lift blocks, reeve the lifts
and braces, cut the yard-arm seizing, and cross the yard, lash the tye,
bunt-line, and clue-line block, reeve the tye and halyards, sway it up above
the cap, and parel it, reeve the clue-lines, bunt-lines, and reef tackles.
How do you rig a top-gallant yard ?
I will seize the clue-line blocks on, put the horses over the yard-arms,
sway it up, on the cap, and rig the yard-arms, by putting on the
brace pendants and lifts, then cross the yard and parel it.
You have lost your rudder at sea, what method will you take to steer the ship ?
I will take a large spar, or part of a top-mast, and cut it flat in
the form of a stern-post, bore holes at proper distances in that part
which is to be the fore-part of the preventer, or additional stern-post
then take the thickest plank I have on board, and make it as near as I
can into the form of a rudder, bore holes at proper distances in the
fore part of it, and in the after-part of the preventer stern-post to correspond
with each other; and reeve rope grommets through those holes
in the rudder and after-part of the stern-post, for the rudder to play upon.
Through the preventer stern-post reeve guys, and at the fore-part of
them fix tackles, and then put the machine over-board; when I get it
in proper position, or in a line with the ship's stern-post, lash the upper
part of the preventer-post to the upper part of the ship's stern-post, then
hook tackles at or near the main chains, and bowse taut on the guys to
confine it to the lower part of the stern-post; having holes bored
through the preventer and proper stern-post, I will run an iron bolt
through both, taking care not to touch the rudder, which will prevent
the false stern-post from rising up or falling down.
By the guys on the after-part of the rudder, and tackles fixed to them,
I may steer the ship. I must take care to bowse taut the tackles on the
preventer stern-post to keep it close to the proper stern-post.
Your ship is leaky, you cannot keep her free by the pumps, what will you do ?
I will take a spare top-sail, or some other sail, and spread it upon
the deck, cover it all over with oakum, and bind it to the top-sail with a
needle and twine in several places, to keep it fast to the sail, then take
a hawser and cut it into proper lengths to go under the ship's bottom,
and come in over the gunnel, put these hawsers about four feet distant
under the sail, and make them rest with their middle to the middle of
the sails, and each leach, beginning at the head and leaving off at the
clues: then put the sail over-board, keeping the oakum side to the
ship's bottom, and haul up the ends of the hawsers on the other side by
a hauling line which I have swept the ship with, numbering each end
fore and aft; then ease away on the hawser's ends on that side I have
put the sail over, and keep hauling at the same time on the hawser's
ends on the opposite side. When the sail is properly down, which is
known by marking the hawser; I will then clap on tackles and bowse
all taut, keeping the sail close to the ship's bottom, the oakum will be
drawn in, and stop the leak. The sail may be covered with dung, or
any filth I have on board, which will be drawn in and stop the leak.